In your classes, you will need to cite the various authors you have built your own scholarship upon. Good and robust citation serve as the bones for your work. Not only do they support your creative remixing and interpretations of concepts and ideas, but they also help other scholars both check your work and discover ideas upon which to build.
Using standard citation methods helps communities of scholars speak the same language when it comes to finding and using sources in their work. This document points to useful resources along three of the major citation methods:
- APA (American Psychological Association),
- MLA (Modern Language Association), and
- CMS (Chicago Manual of Style).
For a quick comparison of citation styles, see the following document Citation Chart from Purdue OWL.
APA, which is shorthand for "the American Psychological Association style of citation," is commonly used by the following academic disciplines:
- Social Sciences, such as Psychology, Linguistics, Sociology, and Economics, and
Below, you can find helpful resources for getting started using APA to cite within your papers.
- APA Overview at Purdue OWL – Purdue OWL is one of the best collection of writing resources on the Internet and their section on APA citation is no exception.
- APA Formating Guide – This page describes the general format all all papers written in the APA style should use. Your instructor may override particular guidelines, so always be sure to check the details of your assignment.
- APA Citation Guide – Guide on how to create in-text APA citations.
- Creating a Reference List for an APA paper – Need to create your first reference page (sometimes called a bibliography or a works cited page)? Start here.
- APA Style from the American Psychological Association – This is the idiomatic horse's mouth! Check out the quick guide links at the bottom of the page.
MLA, which is shorthand for "the Modern Language Association", is used by the following academic disciplines:
- Cultural Studies, and
- Foreign Language and Literature.
Below you can find some helpful resources on how to use the MLA citation and style method in your papers.
- MLA Overview at Purdue OWL – Great overview of MLA
- MLA Formatting & Guide (video) – Short overview of how to format MLA papers
- MLA Citation Guide – Guide on citing various types of sources in MLA papers
- Creating a MLA Bibliography – How to put your works cited or bibliography together
CMS is shorthand for the Chicago Manual of Style. It is often used interchangeably with the Turabian style, which is a bit more student friendly. We commonly see Chicago being used in the following academic disciplines:
- Philosophy, and
- Religious Studies.
Below you can find some helpful resources on how to use the Chicago citation and style method in your papers.
- Chicago Overview at Purdue OWL – Great overview of Chicago
- Chicago Formatting & Guide – Short overview of how to format Chicago papers
- Creating a Bibliography in Chicago – How to put your works cited or bibliography together
- Types of Citations - A short document that demonstrates various types of citations (such as blockquotes, paraphrasing, direct quotes, et cetera)